Principia Scientific International was formed with good intentions and I contributed papers and articles in 2012 and 2013. However their pseudo science is now dominated by the postulate that solar radiation explains all the surface temperatures. They also support the Connollys' conjecture which I refuted **here**.

In the article *"Kiehl and Trenberth Debunk Climate Alarm"* (January 19, 2015) **here** on the website for Principia Scientific International, Joseph Postma writes as follows: *"And why do Kiehl and Trenberth, and climate alarm, get into such a mess? Of course, it’s because they don’t get the incoming energy from the Sun correct in the first place. Their “168 absorbed by surface” means that Sunlight could only ever make a surface it strikes to heat up to -40 degrees Celsius."*

But the 168W/m^2 of mean solar energy absorbed by the surface is indeed roughly correct and also appears in NASA diagrams. The Solar Constant (about 1360W/m^2) is reduced by about half because of reflection and absorption by clouds and the rest of the atmosphere.

Then we need to understand that the effective mean radiation is one-fourth of that half because the incident radiation is that which passes through a circle which is perpendicular to the radiation and which has the same radius as the Earth. It is the area of this circle which gives us the number of square meters used in the flux measurement that has units of watts per square meter. However, over the course of 24 hours the solar radiation is spread over the whole surface, and the area of the surface of a sphere is exactly four times the area of a circle with the same radius. Hence we divide the 1360W/m^2 by about 8 and thus we see that the 168W/m^2 figure is about right. Please now read the **Home** page.

The flux of 324W/m^2 for back radiation cannot be added to the solar radiation of 168W/m^2 in order to calculate surface temperature. Do you feel it at night? They calculate total flux as 168-24-78+324 = 390W/m^2 and then use that in Stefan Boltzmann calculations (here) as if the surface is a perfect black body at 288K. But if we (correctly) disregard the backradiation we have 390-324 which is only 66W/m^2.

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